The mantras are classified into two kinds. The mantras that were envisioned the rishis are
known as kantaapta. The mantras that were inferred by recollection are known as kalpya.
This classification is based on the puranas. Yaaskaachaarya has classified the mantras
into three categories parokshakruta, pratyakshakruta and aadhyaatmika.
hold the Vishnupuraana as the most authentic among the eighteen puraanas. According to the
Vishnupuraana, kaandarshi Jaimini, disciple of maharshi Vedavyasa, studied the saamaveda
and divided it into two parts. Jaimini taught one part to his son sumanthu and the other
part to his grandson sukarmaa. Both taught the respective parts they studied to many
disciples. Hiranyanaabha, one of sukarmaas disciples, divided the part he learnt
into fifteen parts and taught one part each to his fifteen disciples. These have come to
be known as Udeechya Saamaya. Rishi Poushyanjis disciples Lokaakshi, Kutumi,Kusidi
Tangali and others learnt parts of Saamaveda from Hiranyanaabha. These came to be known as
Praachya Saamaga. Krutinaabha, a prominent disciple of Hiranyanaabha, taught his part to
twenty-five students and they in turn taught to their numerous disciples.
One thousand branches of saamaveda are
mentioned in major works such as Paatanjala Mahaabhaashya, Sutasamhitaa, Muktikopanishad,
Skandapuraana,etc. The Vishnu Puraana cites nine parts of the Raanaayaneeya
Saatyaayaneeya, Saatwala, Moudgala, Khalwala, Mahaakhalwala, Taangala, Kouthuma, Goutama
However, a very interesting question and a very valid one at that arises here. When all
the vaidic literature, including Muktikopanishad mention that the division of about 1130
branches of the vedas down to the number of mantras, words and letters are eternal, then
how can the rishis be attributed the division of the vadas, samhitaas? The Purushasukta of
yajurveda mentions that the vedas divided into 4 parts with their divisions became
manifest independently at the beginning of the cosmas Rehah saamaani
jajnnirey, chandaamsi jajnnirey tasmaadyajustasmaadajaayata. The plural forms rchah
and saamaani point to the various branches of the four vedas as well became manifest in
the beginning of the creation and are eternal. The rishis dividing the eternal vedas into
parts is ridiculous and absolutely ruled out. Perhaps these sages made special study and
efforts to propagate these branches and wrongly quoted as the dividers in the puraanas.
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